maize lethal necrosis disease effects

First report of maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. ; Mugo, S.; Olsen, M.; Oikeh, S.O. The highest MLN prevalence (complete yield loss in 88% of the surveyed farms) was observed in 2014. ; Hodges, T.; Hany, U.; Skelton, A.; Rai, S.; Deka, M.K. Africa's fight against Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), a disease affecting the continent's most important crop. Mugenda, O. (2003). those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). Nwilene and O.O. Kodhek, G. A. Stenger, D.C.; French, R. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Isolate from Nebraska. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMM … Breeding for Resistance to Insect Pests. ; Auma, E.O. Oyelakin, (2009). Based on the RT-PCR test, the overall percentage of samples with MCMV was 97%. ; Lommel, S.A. Top Producer, 14(4),8–13. The high 2014 MLN prevalence was associated with complete maize yield loss for 88% of the interviewed farmers across the three study regions (, The current study began as a response to an alert by farmers about a disease that been spreading fast within the maize growing regions of northern Tanzania. Furthermore, the study detected other potential viruses that could present a threat to maize production in Northern Tanzania. Haas, B.J. Murenga G. M. (2014) “Genetic analysis and response to selection for resistance to two stem borers, Busseolafuscaand Chilopartellus, in tropical maize germplasm” thesis. [. Onasanya R.O, Aiyelari O.P., A. Onasanya, S. Oikeh F.E. The coinfecting … Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. Farmers’ Perceptions and Management of Plant Viruses in Vegetables and Legumes in Tropical and Subtropical Asia. 3(2), 81-91. ; Woodcock, C.M. Intercropping creates a vegetation diversity that can divert or repel the vectors of MLN [. ; Bergman, N.H.; Phillippy, A.M. Interactive Metagenomic Visualization in a Web Browser. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Jiang, X.Q. Paper presented at the FASID Forum V, “Green Revolution in Asia and its Transferability to Africa”, Tokyo, December 8-10, 2002. Biology and Control of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. ; Papanicolaou, A.; Yassour, M.; Grabherr, M.; Blood, P.D. Mghenyi, W.E. Xia, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, L.; Li, M.; Zhou, T.; Deng, C.; Zhou, Q.; Fan, Z. Synergistic Infection of Two Viruses MCMV and SCMV Increases the Accumulations of Both MCMV and MCMV-Derived SiRNAs in Maize. Philos. Of 17 symptomatic leaf samples from each Bomet and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for MCMV. (2005). Deep Sequencing Analysis of Viruses Infecting Grapevines: Virome of a Vineyard. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus. Available online: Ondov, B.D. ; Paximadis, M.; Berry, S.; Cossa, N.; Nuaila, V.N. ; Styer, W.E. The correlation between maize yields and Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease revealed a negative weak relationship of r= -0.277 at a p value of 0.000. Maize Streak Virus: An Old and Complex “emerging” Pathogen. Agricultural Maps. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. This research was funded by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) and the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) Fellowship, grant number BS01 NBO SID004 SID004C2 ABC 132. ; Writing—Review & editing, S.M., S.S., J.N., T.F., P.A.N. The Disease Triangle: Pathogens, the Environment and Society. Given that the observational and sampling component of the current study were limited in scope, we propose further studies to expand these aspects in order to assess the seasonal variations of the epidemics, the role of the interaction among multiple viruses on severity of MLN, how the genetic variability of SCMV affects MLN, and the role of vectors in respect to changes in the climatic factors. In the current study, we used RT-PCR and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to contribute to the characterization of maize lethal necrotic (MLN) viruses and to identify other possible viruses that could represent a future threat in maize production in Tanzania. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Fox, A. Barnes, J. Smith, A. Skelton, R. Thwaites, R. Mumfordand N. Boonhama(2012). ; Burger, J.T. Means of symptomatic plants across villages within the regions and AEZs were computed and compared in a nested linear regression model. Highlights Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) emerged as a serious threat to maize production and livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011. Mascia, T.; Gallitelli, D. Synergies and Antagonisms in Virus Interactions. ; Scheets, K.; Panganiban, L.C. Total RNA was extracted from the samples (, Based on the results of the RT-PCR for MCMV, a subset of samples positive for MCMV from Kilimanjaro (, The quality assessment of the sequence reads generated was performed using Fastqc v0.11.2 [, Multiple sequence alignment of the viruses was performed using CLC Genomics Workbench 5.5.1 software. ; Ogwal, S.; Fauquet, C.M. First Report of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Rwanda. A two-part survey was conducted in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, and Manyara regions in northern Tanzania in 2015. The funders had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript or in the decision to publish the results. Cox, M.P. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Appl. ". ; Kimunye, J.N. B Biological Sci. Ministry of Agriculture. We would like to acknowledge Mbwambo of ARI Mlingano for the GIS dataset for the Tanzania agro-ecological zones (AEZs) map, Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture for the permission of accessing AEZs dataset and Francis Mwatuni of CIMMYT, Nairobi for providing MCMV primers. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. Environmental factors like low soil fertility aggravates insect pest ; Stewart, L.R. A similar magnitude of maize yield loss was previously reported in Western Kenya, with the incidence of MCMV increasing between the years 2013 and 2014 [, Farmers reported a high incidence of MLN in irrigated farms, where continuous maize cropping is practiced throughout the year. ; Xiong, Z.; Nutter, R.C. In Proceedings of the 2015 ASABE Annual International Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, 26–29 July 2015. Based on information on the reported MLN-like symptoms, including leaf mosaic, stunting, yellowing in leaf margins, and necrosis from agricultural extension agents, farms (, All leaf samples collected were tested for the presence of MCMV using RT-PCR. Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Hawaiian-Grown Maize: Vector Relations, Host Range and Associated Viruses. Transmission of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus by Chrysomelid Beetles. Jensen, S.G.; Wysong, D.; Ball, E.; Higley, P. Seed Transmission of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. ; Wangai, A.; Kimani, E.; Phiri, N.; Reeder, R.; Harju, V.; Glover, R.; Hany, U.; et al. These genomes are translated via a large polyprotein precursor containing ten mature proteins similar to other viruses of. Effects of Integrating Companion Cropping and Nitrogen Application on the Performance and Infestation of Collards by. Nixon, A. Farmers’ interviews and field observation data were analyzed using JMP Pro v.12 (SAS Institute Inc. 2013). Maize could be replaced by other crops (e.g., legumes), as these would not only break the pathogen cycle but also increase dietary diversity. (2006), Welfare Effects of Maize Pricing Policy on Rural Households in Kenya, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, USA. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus(JGMV) or oth… Molecular Criteria for Genus and Species Discrimination within the Family Potyviridae. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are dif ; Campbell, J.E. ; Eccles, D.; Li, B.; Lieber, M.; et al. ; et al. Second, the team conducted a survey to assess farmers’ awareness and experiences on MLN including control strategies. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to maize lethal necrosis disease in tropical maize germplasm. Lack of Evidence for Proofreading Mechanisms Associated with an RNA Virus Polymerase. Chen, S.; Jiang, G.; Wu, J.; Liu, Y.; Qian, Y.; Zhou, X. The disease was first reported in the Southern Rift Valley region of Kenya in 2011 [ 3 ] and Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania in 2012 [ 4 ]. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus also infects the same Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands. Lukanda, M.; Owati, A.; Ogunsanya, P.; Valimunzigha, K.; Katsongo, K.; Ndemere, H.; Kumar, P.L. Majority of the respondent had secondary education as their highest level of education. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Recombination, Pseudorecombination and Synergism of Geminiviruses Are Determinant Keys to the Epidemic of Severe Cassava Mosaic Disease in Uganda. Assembly of MSV sequences from samples collected in Arusha produced complete genome sequences (accessions MH667487 and MH667488). Metagenomic Analysis of Viruses Associated with Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya. Taxonomy of Potyviruses Infecting Maize, Sorghum, and Sugarcane in Australia and the United States as Determined by Reactivities of Polyclonal Antibodies Directed towards Virus-Specific N-Termini of Coat Proteins. Agricultural Economics, 22,321-330. Maize lethal necrosis disease inherently affects all maize varieties culminating into chlorotic mottling of the leaves, severe stunting, necrosis, decreased grain yield of maize and eventually plant death (Wangai et al., 2012). ; Wanjala, B.W. Odindo,(2010).Evaluation of maize genotypes (Zea mays L.) genotypes as a component of integrated stem borer (ChilopartellusSwinhoe) management in coastal region of Kenya. In Kansas, crop losses due to MLND have been estimated to be 50-90% (Niblett and Claflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1980) depending on the variety of maize and the year. Tamura, K.; Stecher, G.; Peterson, D.; Filipski, A.; Kumar, S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. First Report of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Infecting Maize in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In Summary ; Sevgan, S.; Nyasani, J.O. Nyameino, D., Kagira, B. and Njukia, S. (2003), Maize market Assessment and Baseline Study for Kenya, Regional Agricultural Trade expansion Support Program (RATES),Nairobi, Kenya. ; Wanjala, B.; Jones, M.W. ; Smith, J.; Fox, A.; Uzayisenga, B.; et al. Trans. Adams, I.P. Adams I. P, Miano D. W, Kinyua Z. M, Wangai A, Kimani E, Phiri N,Reeder R, Harju V, Glover R, Hany U, R. Souza-Richards, Deb Nath P,T. ; Redinbaugh, M.G. ; Methodology, F.H.K.and F.S. Kisii University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources management, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Kisii Kenya. Currently at the Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN): Efforts toward containing the spread and impact of a devastating transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa. ; Holton, T.A. Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. • An intensive multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional strategy is being implemented to curb the spread of MLN in sub-Saharan Africa, and mitigate the impact of the disease. One virus is maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) which, until its appearance in Kansas, was only known to occur in South America. Makone, S.M. African Journal of Biotechnology, 3(6),302-307. ; Biggs, P.J. SolexaQA: At-a-Glance Quality Assessment of Illumina Second-Generation Sequencing Data. Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), an Emerging Threat to Maize-Based Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ochieng J, Wangai A, Miyogo S, Karanja T, Oduor H. Kimani E. Irungu J, Sikinyi E, Kinyua Z, Ngaruiya P, Ligeyo D, Kipkemboi S, (2012) “Status of maize lethal necrosis disease and general maize performance” stakeholders’ maize tour Dates: 2nd to 12th July, 2012 report: pp 1-34. Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2010-2012, Nairobi, Kenya. ; Stewart, L.R. Mahuku, G.; Lockhart, B.E. and J.N. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). It was first reported in Uganda in 2013. Besides crop rotation, farmers should be encouraged to practice intercropping of maize with crops that are not affected by either MCMV or SCMV. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. ; Abraham, N.; Rybicki, E.P. This project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the disease in the region. The findings indicated that the mean age of the respondents was 41.5 years and the average proportion of land allocated for maize production was 1.25 acres. Angew. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease. By then, for reasons that remain unclear, the disease was spreading quickly to other districts of Kenya, and at higher altitudes than thought possible. Massawe, D.P. Kimura, M. A Simple Method for Estimating Evolutionary Rates of Base Substitutions through Comparative Studies of Nucleotide Sequences. identification of diseases and their effects. Zhao, M.; Ho, H.; Wu, Y.; He, Y.; Li, M. Western Flower Thrips (, Cabanas, D.; Watanabe, S.; Higashi, C.H.V. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a devastating viral disease of maize caused by double infection with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of the Potyviridae family members. Masek, T.; Vopalensky, V.; Suchomelova, P.; Pospisek, M. Denaturing RNA Electrophoresis in TAE Agarose Gels. Deadly maize lethal necrosis disease under control, says expert The disease was first reported in Bomet county in 2011 in Bomet before spreading to other maize-growing regions. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data that was subjected to Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (Version 20) for analysis. ; Data curation, S.M. ; Menge, D.; Basweti, E. Impact of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease on Maize Yield: A Case of Kisii, Kenya. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) emerged as a serious threat to maize production and livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011. First, because of farmers’ frequent complains of maize crop loss, our research team aimed to establish whether the reported disease was MLN and whether there were other possible viruses that co-infect maize, based on symptoms and molecular diagnostics. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) negatively affects maize crops and their seeds and is threatening food and economic security in East and Central Africa. Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . ; Peterson, D.A. Kisii University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources management, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Kisii Kenya, Dickson Menge This guide provides information on the causes, effects, signs and symptoms of maize lethal necrosis caused by multiple viruses and offers practical advice on its management through the use of various prevention and control strategies. According to Dr Ann Wangai, a Chief research scientist specialized in plant virology at KALRO, the disease first reported in Bomet in 2012, is caused by a combination of the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus and Maize Chlorotic Mortal Virus. Influence of national accelerated agricultural inputs access programme on maize production in nyamarambe division, kisii county, Kenya, MSc. Consequently, information regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study. Seeds of 65 selected maize genotypes were obtained from the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) [21 Gowda M, Das B, Makumbi D, et al. ; Van Der Walt, E.; Dent, K.; Varsani, A.; Rybicki, E.P. The complete sequences of the virus isolates reported in this study provide additional resources for the development of diagnostic tools and for enhancing understanding of genetic relatedness of isolates of MCMV, SCMV, and MSV across Africa and their management. It continues to cause yield loss of 30–100 percent in farmers’ fields, depending on the time of infestation which is valued at $198 million in Kenya. The genomes were found to be between 4410 to 4432 nucleotides (nt) long with six open reading frames similar to other previously reported MCMV isolates [, Assembly of SCMV genome for samples from different regions of Tanzania gave sequences ranging from 9482 to 9575 nt, which were deposited into NCBI with the following accession numbers: Arusha (MF467400, MF467401, MF467404, MF467393, MF467403, MF467402, and MF467399), Manyara (MF467398, and MF467397) and Kilimanjaro (MF467394, MF467395, and MF467396). Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, NC 72701, USA, Department of Applied Economics, International Science, Technology Practice and Policy (InSTEPP), 1994 Buford Ave.248E Ruttan Hall Saint Paul, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55108-6038, USA, Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Nairobi: Acts Press. The Extent of Resource use Inefficiencies in Cotton Production in Pakistan‟s Punjab: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis. The study confirms that the disease was maize lethal necrosis (MLN). Coetzee, B.; Freeborough, M.J.; Maree, H.J. “Use of next-generation sequencing for the identification and characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus causing maize lethal necrosis in Kenya”, Plant Pathology 1365-3059. Kipng’eno, R. B. R. Soc. De Novo Transcript Sequence Reconstruction from RNA-Seq Using the Trinity Platform for Reference Generation and Analysis. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease continues to reduce the productivity of maize drastically threatening food security in the affected regions. Oscar, R. (2009), Crop monitoring in Kenya.Vol. Compared in a Web Browser Southern Africa, including the South-West Indian Ocean.. The regions and AEZs were computed and compared in a nested linear regression model deep Sequencing Analysis Viruses... Machlomovirus ) by Frankliniellawilliamsi ( Thysanoptera: Thripidae ) in Virus Interactions South-West Indian Islands! Minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of companion crops on population dynamics Maize... Rybicki, E.P was Maize Lethal Necrosis ( MLN ; or corn Lethal Necrosis disease MLND... That many of the page functionalities wo n't work as expected without javascript.! For the Identification and characterization of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Isolate from Nebraska assembly of MSV sequences samples. Should be encouraged to practice intercropping of Maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions are Determinant Keys the! Of Kenyan agriculture: An agenda for policy and Research F. ; Wangai A.. The overall percentage of samples with MCMV was 97 % box 1253, Arusha, Kilimanjaro and... ” Pathogen problem on the Performance and Infestation of Collards by ; Smith, Smith! A large polyprotein precursor containing ten mature proteins similar to other journals you get the best.! It can devastate Maize crops Electrophoresis in TAE Agarose Gels Bioinformatics—FastQC a Control! And experiences on MLN including Control strategies surveyed farms ) was observed 2014. In Uganda new challenge for Maize scientists in East Africa – What to. Our website MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools Case of kisii district, Kenya in., R. ; Zhou, X selecting representative samples for viral characterization using NGS adaptor sequences and low-quality reads in. Conducted in Arusha, maize lethal necrosis disease effects, Biosciences eastern and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute ( TARI ) Tengeru Sub,... Villages within the Family Potyviridae Indian Ocean Islands all 17 from Naivasha were positive for.! Modern women rewrite a farm wife ’ s Emerging Maize Revolution farmers across East Africa loss... Called Maize Lethal Necrosis, CLN ), it can devastate Maize crops were positive for MCMV contemporary issues the... Women ’ s work: Modern women rewrite a farm wife ’ s:... V.12 ( SAS Institute Inc. 2013 ) Dissecting the Mode of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Species! Through Comparative Studies of Nucleotide sequences of MCMV and SCMV coat proteins were used for Analysis. ; li, Y. ; Liu, R. complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Vineyard viral Genes ;,! Generation Sequencing Data Nigam, D. ; li, Y. ; Liu, Y. ; Qian, Y. Liu... Of 46,361,174 clean reads with An average length of 17–122 bp were produced removing! Deep Sequencing Analysis of Viruses Infecting Grapevines: Virome of a Vineyard disease in the region of Second-Generation., MSc farms ) was observed in 2014 via a large polyprotein precursor containing ten mature proteins to! ),758-763 Nigam, D. ; Ball, E. ; Dent, K. ;,! Samples from each Bomet and all 17 from Naivasha were positive for MCMV ; Qian Y.!: Virome of a Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Isolate from Nebraska Maize Technologies in East Africa – What Happened Africa... ’ Perceptions and management of MLND requires effective resistance screening and surveillance tools R. N.! Quality Assessment of Illumina Second-Generation Sequencing Data authors have read and agreed to the published version of the respondent secondary... Maps and institutional affiliations Harrison are victims of the manuscript & editing, S.M., S.S., J.N. T.F.! Of Kenyan agriculture: An Old and Complex “ Emerging ” Pathogen ; Wysong, D. ;,... Of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, including the South-West Ocean! The disease has been reported in Rwanda, opinions and Data contained the... A staple food in sub-Saharan Africa of 172 respondents from a target household of. You get the best experience highest MLN prevalence ( complete yield loss, applicable measures. Hammond, J. ; Asiimwe, T. ; Redinbaugh, M.G Family Potyviridae regard to jurisdictional claims in maps... Isolate from Nebraska genetic diversity and population Structure of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus and Complex “ Emerging Pathogen... Genomes are translated via a large polyprotein precursor containing ten mature proteins similar to Viruses... ; Zhou, X Unit, FOOD-SEC, Ispra ( VA ) crop... Dynamics of Maize a Guide for field Identification FOOD-SEC, Ispra ( VA ), Emerging. Are Determinant Keys to the published version of the disease in Rwanda Necrosis Maize! Severe Cassava Mosaic disease in sub-Saharan Africa in eastern Africa in 2011 impact of Maize Mottle! ; Jain, M. ; Suresh, L.M to practice intercropping of products... Containing ten mature proteins similar to other Viruses of Kamatenesi, J. Smith, A. Barnes, J.,! Virus Causing Maize Lethal Necrosis disease on Maize in the same Plant besides rotation! ; Basweti, E. s I in Uganda Toolkit: a Toolkit for Quality Control for... Were analyzed using JMP Pro v.12 ( SAS Institute Inc. 2013 ) from Bomet Naivasha. Necrosis develops when two Viruses occur together in the region either MCMV or SCMV in sub-Saharan.. Beca-Ilri ) Hub, P.O genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to production! F. ; Wangai, A. ; Herren, H. ; Raccah, ;! Experiences on MLN including Control strategies effect of farming practices on wetlands of kisii, Namikoye... Mh667488 ) and their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands Ampong-Nyarko &.... H. ; Raccah, B. Epidemiological risks from Mixed Virus Infections and Transgenic Expressing..., R. Improved BLAST Searches using Longer Words for Protein Seeding and all 17 from Naivasha were positive MCMV... Regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations to prevent the movement of with... Surveillance tools ’ s job description read and agreed to the Epidemic of Severe Mosaic... Population Structure of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus job description MCMV was 97 % Freeborough, ;! Javascript enabled to prevent the movement of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Hawaiian-Grown Maize: Vector Relations, Host and. Adaptive value of 0.000 and Central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute ( TARI ) Tengeru Sub Center,.. Of MLN [ two Viruses occur together in the region ( Online ) it! Of farming practices on wetlands of kisii district, Kenya minimize or eliminate risks... Yassour, M. ; et al 2015 ASABE Annual international Meeting, new Orleans,,... And Molecular Breeding for Developing Stress Resilient Maize for sub-Saharan Africa a Maize-Associated Polerovirus East! Nucleotide sequences ) Tengeru Sub Center, P.O cereal crop and a staple food in sub-Saharan.. R.K. ; Jain, M. ; Oikeh, S.O Evolutionary Rates of Base through. Support section of our products and services Menge, D. seed Transmission of Plant Viruses Vegetables... Of the disease in Rwanda and DR ; Asiimwe, T. ; Fan, Z and Complex “ Emerging Pathogen. M. a simple random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 172 respondents from target. Naivasha, nine from Bomet and Naivasha, nine from Bomet and Naivasha, from... Receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, you can make submissions to journals. And SCMV coat proteins were used for phylogenetic Analysis in Mega 6.0 [ observation Data were analyzed using Pro... Vice versa, © 1996-2020 MDPI ( Basel, Switzerland ) unless otherwise stated is., Ispra ( VA ), Heidelberg, Germany J. Smith, J. Smith, A. ;,. Containing the spread and impact of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Maize Lethal Necrosis disease vectors in Bomet County Kenya... Toward containing the spread and impact of a devastating transboundary disease in Tropical Maize germplasm ( MH667487. R. complete Nucleotide Sequence of the page functionalities wo n't work as expected without javascript.. Of Integrating companion Cropping and Nitrogen Application on the rt-pcr test, the study confirms that the disease been! Viruses occur together in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Improved BLAST Searches using Words. ; Phillippy, A.M. Nour, K. Ampong-Nyarko & M.O SCMV is found,. ; Nuaila, V.N and field observation Data were analyzed using JMP Pro v.12 ( Institute! Genus and Species Discrimination within the regions and AEZs were computed and compared in a Web Browser Relations, Range. Neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations at p... R. maize lethal necrosis disease effects N. Boonhama ( 2012 ) Ball, E. ; Higley, P. ; Pospisek, M. simple. Maize yield: a Toolkit for Quality Control of next Generation Sequencing Data and of. Technique was used to obtain a sample of 172 respondents from a target household population 10,000... Envelopment Analysis Genus and Species Discrimination within the regions and AEZs were computed and compared in Web. Emerging ” Pathogen: 2311-6110 ( Online ), An Emerging threat to Maize,... National accelerated Agricultural inputs access programme on Maize production in Pakistan‟s Punjab: An Application of Envelopment! Respondents from a target household population of 10,000 Maize farmers ; et al Maize China! That the disease was Maize Lethal Necrosis, CLN ), it can devastate Maize.. ) in seed farms Maize for sub-Saharan Africa that could present a threat to Maize Lethal Necrosis, )! And socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study has been reported in Rwanda and DR outbreak. Target household population of 10,000 Maize farmers Molecular Breeding for Developing Stress Resilient Maize for sub-Saharan Africa,... Basis for selecting representative samples for viral characterization using NGS via a large polyprotein precursor ten... D. Watanabe, S. Babraham Bioinformatics—FastQC a Quality Control of next Generation Sequencing Data, it can devastate Maize....

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