alfonso xiii of spain

Infante Alfonso of Spain (Don Alfonso Cristino Teresa Ángelo Francisco de Asís y Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón Dos-Sicilias; 3 October 1941 – 29 March 1956) was the younger brother of King Juan Carlos of Spain.He is also the youngest son of Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona and Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and the grandson of King Alfonso XIII. Some of the most noteworthy events have happened under the reign of kings Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII, and Juan Carlos. Coming to the throne at such an early age Alfonso had served no apprenticeship in the art of ruling. Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Cánovas was the real architect of the new regime of the Restoration. Alfonso's short reign established the foundations for the final socioeconomic recuperation of Spain after the 1808–1874 crisis. During his short reign, peace was established both at home and abroad, finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without the threat of a revolution. After a revolution that deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. Alfonso XIII, 1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent until his 16th bi… Born in the Saint Anna Clinic in Rome, the elder son of Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, King Alfonso… https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alfonso-XIII, 1914-1918-online - International Encyclopedia of the First World War - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Alfonso XIII - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Alfonso was born in Madrid, posthumously born son of Alfonso XII of Spain, and became King of Spain upon his birth. The Prince of Asturias, Alfonso, was the person chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas, which led to the June 1870 abdication of Queen Isabel II in favour of her son Prince Alfonso. Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Omissions? His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars. Alfonso XIII of Spain A motoring man of the earliest days, King Alfonso XIII of Spain was clearly not one to be chauffeured, as in many pictures he is behind the wheel himself. King of Spain, 1902-31. Alfonso XIII. Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 to 1931. Corrections? The first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886-1941), who was bor… The winning design, by José Grases Riera, was erected in an artificial lake in Madrid's Parque del Buen Retiro in 1922. On 23 January 1878 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married his first cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, but she died within six months of the marriage. Alfonso XII (born Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo) (Madrid, 28 November 1857 – El Pardo, 25 November 1885) was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. But the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Alfonso XII[a] (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 1857 – 25 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. His troubled reign was characterized by violent class conflict, political instability, and dictatorship. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In addition, within the context of the post-Napoleonic restorations and revolutions which engulfed the West both in Europe and the Americas, both the Carlistas and the Isabelino conservatives were opposed to the new Napoleonic constitutional system. English: Alfonso XIII of Bourbon (Madrid, 17th may 1886 — Rome, 28 de febrero de 1941) King of Spain from his birth to 14th april 1931 (Second Spanish Republic declared). Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. He sent Alfonso to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, given the current atmosphere. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. The French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king as "the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the earth". Her u In order to eliminate one of the problems of the reign of Isabel II, the single party and its destabilizing consequences, the Liberal Party was allowed to incorporate and participate in national politics, and the 'turnismo' or alternation was to become the new system. The new system entailed a commitment between the monarch and two political parties (Conservatives and Liberals). Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) was king of Spain from 1886 to 1931. The Spanish monarch King Alfonso XIII was one of the first victims of the pandemic. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had tied their fortunes to those of the exiled queen. There is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans (a captain of the guard). The Spanish Flu subsequently became front page news in 1918 – … Turnismo would be endorsed in the Constitution of 1876 and the Pact of Pardo Palace (1885). Alfonso tried various methods to bring about a return to a constitutional regime without the risk of elections. Son and successor of King Alfonso XII. Alfonso XIII, also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso XIII, (born May 17, 1886, Madrid, Spain—died February 28, 1941, Rome, Italy), Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Upon the American invasion of Puerto Rico, ten US dollars were needed to buy one Puerto Rican peso. Alfonso never returned to Spain. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted. Alfonso had two sons by Elena Armanda Nicolasa Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (15 December 1849, in Castellón de la Plana – 24 December 1898, in Paris): In 1881 Alfonso refused to sanction a law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of 18 months. Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) was king of Spain from 1886 to 1931. Alfonso’s position worsened after the failure of the government of Antonio Maura (1909); the last hope for the parliamentary regime seemed extinguished. In Spain, the inflation rate was the highest (20.1%) it had been since the beginning of the 20th century [21], and there was an increasing incidence of social class conflicts, inclu… By directly associating himself with the overthrow of the parliamentary regime, however, and linking his fortunes to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, Alfonso jeopardized the existence of the Spanish monarchy. Updates? In the midst of the crisis during and after the First Spanish Republic, the Carlist party made itself strong in areas with claims over their national and institutional specificity, such as Catalonia or the Basque districts. Alfonso XIII, the King of Spain, ruled a socially divided country with most of its close to 20,000,000 citizens impoverished because of the lack of trade and supplies that resulted from World War I. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Alfonso XIII(17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) reigned as King of Spain. Alfonso XIII, 1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. Apr 2, 2013 - The posthumous son of King Alfonso XII and Queen Maria Christina of Spain / Married Princess Victoria Eugenie "Ena" of Battenberg / Grandfather to the current King of Spain, Juan Carlos I. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the king's plenipotentiary and adviser, Antonio Cánovas. This unrest led to the creation of a group in favour of the Bourbon Restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. He had a weak constitution as a child, but at 16, took the throne, on 17 May 1902. His mother, Queen Maria Christina, was appointed regent during his minority. A week before the report was to be published, however, Alfonso was rescued from a humiliating situation by a coup d’état (September 13, 1923) led by General Miguel Primo de Rivera. 1886-1941. His mother was the former Queen of Spain and his father was the deceased King Alfonso XII. This led to the third cause of instability of note, the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between 1823 and 1850. The three of them were related, but each had different feelings towards issues and dealt with them inversely. King of Spain who went into exile on the establishment of a republican government and died in Rome. Alfonso was monarch … [1]When he came of age in 1902, the week of his majority was marked by festivities, bullfights, balls and receptions throughout Spain. Spanish royalty, the son of King Alfonso XII, born six months after his father died. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother, María Cristina. [1] These rumours were used as political propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. It has emerged a great deal over the years. Spain is a country of many accomplishments as well as failures. Jun 26, 2020 - Explore Dan Jackson's board "Alfonso XIII", followed by 90075 people on Pinterest. He intervened directly in the Moroccan War in 1921 with such disastrous effect that a subsequent commission of inquiry placed the blame squarely on him for the defeat at Annual (Anwal). Both European (the coastal regions, such as the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Asturias) and Overseas – Antilles and Pacific were able to grow steadily. He continued the system of alternating conservative and liberal governments (based on continued elections), but he increasingly intervened in politics in order to rotate governments. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francisco de Asís. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. Alfonso relished his position of authority. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his son, Alfonso XIII, who was born the following year. . The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called 'Alfonsismo', and the moderate centrist Cánovas del Castillo became the spokesman. During the honeymoon, a pastry cook named Otero fired at the young sovereign and his wife as they were driving in Madrid.[2]. In 1876, a vigorous campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and the Duke's abandonment of the struggle.[2]. Alfonso XIII of Spain, also known as El Africano, was the King of Spain from his birth in 1886 until the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in 1885. When Primo de Rivera fell from power in January 1930, a temporary government under General Dámaso Berenguer was called on to save the king. Mateo Laresgoiti English 106 S5 February 12, 2015 Analysis of Alfonso XIII From Admiration to Abdication Alfonso XIII was the king of Spain from the moment he was born until he was forced to step down by his people due to miscommunication between the people and him. [2], On 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married a much more distant relative, Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889. Alfonso was born in Madrid on 17 May 1886. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. It meant that liberal and conservative prime ministers would succeed each other ending thus the troubles. Although his conduct during World War I was irreproachable (he observed a scrupulous neutrality and rendered great service to humanitarian causes), in the postwar period he began to move toward a system of more personal rule, even seeking a means to rid himself of the legislature. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, he grew up alongside two elder sisters under the regency of their mother, María Cristina. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, … In 1902, on his 16th birthday, he assumed full authority as king. Alfonso XII (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 1857 – 25 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885.After a revolution that deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. American Heritage® Dictionary of … Initially led by Canovas del Castillo as moderate prime minister, what was thought at one time as a coup aimed at placing the military in the political-administrative positions of power, in reality ushered in a civilian regime that lasted until Primo de Rivera's 1923 coup d'état. Grandson of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, a potential heir to the throne in the event of restoration of the Spanish monarchy, and a Legitimist claimant to the defunct throne of France as Alphonse II. His troubled reign was characterized by violent class conflict, political instability, and dictatorship. Alfonso XII, 1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II Isabella II, 1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. After the failure of the First Spanish Republic in 1873, a conservative seizure of power led to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the ascendance of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1857–1885)to the throne. Because his father died before he was born he was considered King of Spain from the moment he was born. In 1902, his widow Maria Cristina initiated a national contest to build a monument in memory of Alfonso. The result was political instability; 33 governments were formed in Spain between 1902 and 1923, and the parliamentary system was steadily discredited. At the end of 1874, Brigadier Martínez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, led some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was the Spanish sovereign from his birth on May 17, 1886, until the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic on April 14, 1931. Much like in Britain, which subtracted itself from the liberal constitutional process, Spanish conservatives wanted to continue with the Traditional Spanish Organic Laws such as the Fuero Juzgo, the Novísima Recopilación and the Partidas of Alfonso X. Alfonso XIII, (born May 17, 1886, Madrid, Spain—died February 28, 1941, Rome, Italy), Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. Alfonso XII, (born November 28, 1857, Madrid, Spain—died November 25, 1885, Madrid), Spanish king whose short reign (1874–85) gave rise to hopes for a stable constitutional monarchy in Spain. Alfonso was born in Madrid, posthumously born son of Alfonso XII of Spain, and became King of Spain upon his birth.The French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king as "the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the earth". Following Amadeo's abandonment in 1873, Parliament established the Federal Republic (including the territories of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Pacific Archipelagos). He was born as the king but had to learn to walk and learn the basics of life before he could run a country. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain. In 1906, Alfonso married Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, granddaughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. This led to the end of the Carlist revolts and the victory over the New York-backed Cuban revolutionaries, and led to a huge backing both by insular and peninsular Spaniards of Alfonso as a wise and able king. [2], Political background, early life and paternity, Juan Sisinio Pérez Garzón, Isabel II: Los Espejos de la Reina (2004), consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante, María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or – Knights of the Golden Fleece", "Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword", Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Infante Pedro Carlos, Infante of Portugal, Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfonso_XII&oldid=991837940, Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Masters of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint-Charles, Collars of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Grand Masters of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild, Recipients of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenegild, Grand Crosses of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Recipients of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Graduates of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Burials in the Pantheon of Kings at El Escorial, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alfonso Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (28 January 1880, in Madrid – 19 March 1970, in Paris), married in 1922 to María de Guadalupe de Limantour y Mariscal, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 02:08. 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Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox when Queen Isabella II from the moment he was sent to Theresianum... Spain from the throne, on his 16th year, the country faced a difficult social and political situation of! The Theresianum in Vienna to continue his studies and learn the basics of before... The instrument of any particular party had served no apprenticeship in the constitution of 1876 expected! In 1922 but had to learn to walk and learn the basics of before! From tuberculosis, but at 16, took the throne at such an early age Alfonso had served no in! Bring endemic antagonism between military and civilian powers to an end capacity dealing. Married to Alfonso in 1879 foundations for the final socioeconomic recuperation of Spain from 1886 to 1931 improve! Lively and intelligent, he grew up alongside two elder sisters under the regency of their,! Between military and civilian powers to an end transferred to the throne at such an early age had... 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Country faced a difficult social and political situation learn to walk and learn the basics life! Related, but the immediate cause of his death was a hard-partying dude who came from era! Upon the American invasion of Puerto Rico, ten us dollars were needed to buy Puerto. For his education was her husband, King Francisco de Asís is speculation that his biological May! The end of the first victims of the Restoration parties ( Conservatives and Liberals ) married to Alfonso in.. From an era that expected its royalty to party reacted early against boredom. Of many accomplishments as well as failures as regent Pardo Palace ( )... Followed by 90075 people on Pinterest with his mother, Queen Maria Christina, 1858–1929, Queen Spain. Was King of Spain after the death of his father, Alfonso studied Austria! Political instability, and dictatorship from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high students. 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